Pamela Belo, 48, faces one count of felony animal cruelty and one count of misdemeanor animal cruelty.
On July 3 Belo surrendered her four miniature horses to RVR Horse Rescue in Riverview, which reported the animals' poor condition to the sheriff's agriculture unit, the sheriff's office said.
Investigators found that between July 2011 and July 2012, Belo deprived food and nourishment to two of the four horses.
The lack of food led to the death of one of the animals.
Another is expected to recover.
Belo was a 23-year veteran of the sheriff's office and assigned to the Community Outreach Division.